Topic outline


"The ability to communicate is everything."

To focus and concentrate on the suggested speech/language goals that has been outlined in each student’s Individualized Education Plan (IEP) as recommended by the Committee of Special Education (CSE) (i.e., articulation, oral motor, voice, fluency, auditory processing, semantics, syntax, pragmatics, and AAC). In some cases targeting the grade-level curriculum will be addressed.

Learning and communication

Ms. Hemsley
email: (preferred)
phone: 914-793-6130 ext. 4640



What is Speech - Language Pathology?

Speech- Language Pathologist or Speech Therapists treat a variety of disorders related to speech, language, voice, swallowing, fluency and cognitive communication.  Disorders which speech pathologist typically treat include speech disorders (cannot produce speech sounds), fluency (stuttering), voice (inappropriate pitch or harshness), language (receptive and expressive), cognitive difficulties (attention, memory, and problem solving) as well as swallowing disorders. 

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Communication Disorders

     An impairment in the ability to receive, send, process and comprehend ideas.  The ability to comprehend verbal and nonverbal cues as well as graphic symbols may be impaired as well. A communication disorder may be present in hearing, language, and/or speech. The severity level of communication disorders can range from mild to profound. These types of disorders can be developmental or acquired and may be present as the primary disability or secondary to other disabilities. 

(ASHA, 2009)


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lip movements

Speech Disorders

Impairment of speech where articulation of speech sounds, fluency and/or voice may be impacted.

Articulation Disorder: is the abnormal production of speech sounds.  Articulation disorders are characterized by substitutions and omissions.  Addition and distortion of sounds may also be present which impact intelligibility. 

Fluency Disorder: is an disruption in the flow of speaking.  Repetitions in sounds, syllables, words and phrases are all characteristics of a fluency disorder.  It is also characterized by atypical rate and rhytm. An individual with a fluency disorder may also demonstrate struggle behavior, tension and secondary mannerisms. 

Voice Disorder: is characterized by the atypical production of vocal quality, pitch, and loudness.  Abnormal production of resonance and duration of voice also characterize a voice disorder. 

(ASHA, 2009)

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figurative language

Language Disorder

Impairment in the understanding (receptive) and/or use (expressive) of spoken and written langauge.  Within the disorder the form, content, and function (use) of language may be affected. 


*Phonology- sound system of language which also governs sound combinations.

*Morphology- governs structure and construction of word forms.

*Syntax- Governs the combination of words to form sentences.


*Semantics- word meaning


*Pragmatics- Social aspects of language

(ASHA, 2009)

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Variations in Communication

Augmentative/Alternative Communication:

     Typically used by individuals who have impairments in spoken/written language as well as difficulty using gestural modalities to communicate. (ASHA, 2009)


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